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Conventional batteries rely on the electronic properties of various chemicals in order to store electrical energy, and release it when needed.
This tutorial covers how to use batteries and a few other commonly available products to make a battery that can run small things like calculators or LEDs, and can be scaled up, depending on your needs.
This battery could be used to power medical devices within a patients body, or to power environmental monitoring equipment without endangering the environment.
Battery capacity and speed of charging are big limitations for electricity storage. Supercapacitors enable rapid charging, but are expensive to produce. This research team at Oregon State University is developing a way to make cheap supercapacitors out of plant cellulose.