**Burns, M. (March/April 2007). Mental Math from**=*Instructor*.

Suggestions for teaching students to do math mentally.**Carroll, W.M. (1996). Mental Computation of Students in a Reform-based Mathematic= s Curriculum**

Describes results of mental math study with tw= o classes of fifth graders.**Curry, D. (Spring 2007). Integrating Arithmetic and Algebra<= /a>.***The Math Practitioner*, Vol.13(1), p. 5-7.**Menon, R. (Spring 2004).****Preservice Teachers' Number Sense***.*<= em> Focus on Learning Problems in Mathematics, Vol. 26(2).

This article includes a ten-item assessment used with teachers to learn mo= re about their own sense of numbers. Try it yourself!**Seeley, C. (2005). Do the Math = in Your Head**

Ex-president of NCTM talks about the need for = mental math.**Ten Research Fin= dings from "Adding It Up"**

Short research findings based on = the book*Adding It Up: Helping Children Learn*Math from the Nation= al Research Council.**What Is Computational Fluency?**

This brief piece pro= vides an overview of NCTM's stance on computational fluency and flexibility= .**Fennell, F. (2008). Num= ber Sense - Right Now! from***NCTM News Bulletin*

For= mer NCTM President defines number sense with concrete examples.

**Bransford, J., Brown, A. & Cocking, R. (Eds.) (1999). How E= xperts Differ from Novices (pp. 19-38) in***How People Learn: Brain, Mind= , Experience, and School*. National Academy Press Washington, DC.

Research notes how people move from novice to expert, including how = flexibility and fluency help move people along the continuum. To access thi= s article, please click on the following link or cut and paste it into your= browser window: http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?r= ecord_id=3D9853. Below the book information are Option tabs=C2=9D. Choo= se the second option "Contents", and you will be taken to a Table of Conten= ts for the book. Select*Chapter 2: How Experts Differ from Novices.*